Brattle economists, including Professor Daniel McFadden, have been retained by plaintiffs to assess the effects of market allocation and ownership restrictions for a particular line of insurance in the United States. A consortium of insurers covers a significant fraction of U.S. consumers who receive private insurance in the United States. The member insurers, through their association, license their trademark by requiring members to sell insurance only in their exclusive service areas (ESAs). In this case, currently before the Federal Court, plaintiffs allege that because this arrangement prevents entry by one member of the consortium into the territory of another, it has stifled competition and as a result increased premiums paid by consumers.