Testified before the FERC regarding anti-competitive activity by the affiliate of a large interstate pipeline company holding a large block of the pipeline’s capacity to California. Testimony examined natural gas price formation in California, concentration of firm pipeline capacity holdings, utilization of pipelines serving the California gas market, withholding of pipeline capacity by the affiliate, and harm to California gas and electricity consumers during the Energy Crisis. The matter was settled when the pipeline company agreed to pay $1.6 billion to be refunded to California ratepayers.